Serious games offer a promising technology for training complex skills. But there are few implementation guidelines and even fewer empirical studies that unequivocally demonstrate a benefit of game-based training over conventional alternatives. To address the first issue, we developed a structured query framework that links elements of game design (e.g., feedback, challenge, fantasy) to training objectives. The framework is a synthesis of serious game, multimedia instruction, cognitive psychology, and instructional design literatures. Read full document